MARS EXPLORATION CHRONICS
MARS-1, 1962 year, USSR
ZOND-2, 1964 year, USSR
MARINER-4, 1964 year, USA
MARINER 6-7, 1969 year, USA
MARS 2-3, 1971 year, USSR
MARINER-9, 1971 year, USA
MARS 4-7, 1973 year, USSR
Viking 1-2, 1975 year, USA
Fobos 1-2, 1988 year, USSR
Mars Observer, 1992 year, USA
Mars Global Serveyor, 1996 year, USA
Mars Pathfinder, 1996 year, USA
Since 1960 Soviet Union and USA both try to reach Red Planet - MARS.
Until today 32 Automatic Space-Ships (ASS) were launched.
USSR/Russia - 18 launchs
USA ......... - 13 launchs
Japan ........ - 1 launch
* In 1960 Soviet Union made first 2 attempts to launch ASS to Mars but both boosters blow up during the start.
* In 1962 Russia made 3 launchs.
First booster has launched ASS on low earth orbit but acceleration block failed and ASS never leaved low earth orbit.
Second launch was more successful and "MARS-1" pass the Mars (in 1963) - that time all equipment was dead already because of power failure.
Third launch failed again - the booster has launched ASS on low earth orbit but acceleration block failed and ASS never leaved low earth orbit.
* In 1964 USA try to launch 2 ASS.
First launch was unsuccessful and ASS "Mariner-3" was destroyed.
Second one "Mariner-4" was launched and in July 1965 pass by Mars in good shape transmitted to Earth first picture of Red Planet.
USSR successfully launched in 1964 new ASS named "Zond-2" (probe-2).
ASS pass by Mars but distance between them were huge and scientific
result was negligible.
* In 1969 USSR and USA launched per 2 ASS each.
Both Soviet start were disasters - boosters and ASS were destroyed.
Both USA were full success.
Two ASS "Mariner- 6" and "Mariner-7" complete their study of Mars and send to Earth many high quality pictures.
* In 1971 were made 5 attempts.
First launch in USA was unsuccessful and ASS "Mariner-8" was destroyed.
First launch in USSR also was unsuccessful - ASS reached on low earth
orbit but acceleration block was failed and ASS was named as "COSMOS-419".
Three others start were more success: American "Mariner-9" and Russian
"Mars-2", "Mars-3" finally reach Mars.
They are became first artificial Mars satellites, besides both Russian ASS drop landers on Mars.
"Mars-2" lander disacceleration system failed and lander was crashed on Mars soil.
"Mars-3" lander reached ground and transmitted picture from it... but only for 21 seconds! After it contact with lander was lost forever.
* In 1973 USSR launched massive attacke on Mars by 4 ASS!!!
"Mars-4", Mars-5", "Mars-6 and "Mars-7".
"Mars-4" pass by Mars and was lost because of rocket engine failure.
"Mars-5" became Martian satellite and did pictured planet.
"Mars-6" dropped lander on Mars which examen Martian atmosphere but was destroyed because soft lander system failure.
"Mars-7" dropped another lander which was on wrong trajectory and
ricochet from Martian atmosphere to space.
* In 1975 USA launched two very successful mission: "Viking-1" and
"Viking-2". Both ASS landed on Mars and transmitted wonderful pictures and did study Mars for long time.
* In 1988 USSR launched two ASS - international projects "Fobos-1" and
"Fobos-1" - was lost on his way to Mars.
"Fobos-2" - was lost near the Fobos.
* In 1992 USA launched "Mars Observer" (1 billion dollars) which also was lost on his way to Mars.
* In 1996 were launched "Mars Global Serveyor" (Martian satellite) and
"Mars Pathfinder" (lander). Both mission were full success.
Russia lost they own ASS "Mars-96" because of rocket failure.
* In 1998 were launched American's "Mars Climate Orbiter" and Japanese
"Mars Climate Orbiter" burn up in Martian atmosphere.
"Nozomi" still on his way to Mars (should reach Red Planet in 2001).
* In 1999 American "Mars Polar Lander" was launched and you know what
Total we have 32 ASS launched to Mars.
* 6 ASS were destroyed during start,
* 4 ASS lost on low earth orbit,
* 12 ASS were failure.
And only 10 missions were success.
@2000 Designed by Roman N. Tunkel. All Rights Reserved.